Archive for 十月 2010




President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, members of the faculty, proud parents, and, above all, graduates.

The first thing I would like to say is ‘thank you.’ Not only has Harvard given me an extraordinary honour, but the weeks of fear and nausea I have endured at the thought of giving this commencement address have made me lose weight. A win-win situation! Now all I have to do is take deep breaths, squint at the red banners and convince myself that I am at the world’s largest Gryffindor reunion.

Delivering a commencement address is a great responsibility; or so I thought until I cast my mind back to my own graduation. The commencement speaker that day was the distinguished British philosopher Baroness Mary Warnock. Reflecting on her speech has helped me enormously in writing this one, because it turns out that I can’t remember a single word she said. This liberating discovery enables me to proceed without any fear that I might inadvertently influence you to abandon promising careers in business, the law or politics for the giddy delights of becoming a gay wizard.

You see? If all you remember in years to come is the ‘gay wizard’ joke, I’ve come out ahead of Baroness Mary Warnock. Achievable goals: the first step to self improvement.

Actually, I have wracked my mind and heart for what I ought to say to you today. I have asked myself what I wish I had known at my own graduation, and what important lessons I have learned in the 21 years that have expired between that day and this.

I have come up with two answers. On this wonderful day when we are gathered together to celebrate your academic success, I have decided to talk to you about the benefits of failure. And as you stand on the threshold of what is sometimes called ‘real life’, I want to extol the crucial importance of imagination.

These may seem quixotic or paradoxical choices, but please bear with me.

Looking back at the 21-year-old that I was at graduation, is a slightly uncomfortable experience for the 42-year-old that she has become. Half my lifetime ago, I was striking an uneasy balance between the ambition I had for myself, and what those closest to me expected of me.

I was convinced that the only thing I wanted to do, ever, was to write novels. However, my parents, both of whom came from impoverished backgrounds and neither of whom had been to college, took the view that my overactive imagination was an amusing personal quirk that would never pay a mortgage, or secure a pension. I know that the irony strikes with the force of a cartoon anvil, now.

So they hoped that I would take a vocational degree; I wanted to study English Literature. A compromise was reached that in retrospect satisfied nobody, and I went up to study Modern Languages. Hardly had my parents’ car rounded the corner at the end of the road than I ditched German and scuttled off down the Classics corridor.

I cannot remember telling my parents that I was studying Classics; they might well have found out for the first time on graduation day. Of all the subjects on this planet, I think they would have been hard put to name one less useful than Greek mythology when it came to securing the keys to an executive bathroom.

I would like to make it clear, in parenthesis, that I do not blame my parents for their point of view. There is an expiry date on blaming your parents for steering you in the wrong direction; the moment you are old enough to take the wheel, responsibility lies with you. What is more, I cannot criticise my parents for hoping that I would never experience poverty. They had been poor themselves, and I have since been poor, and I quite agree with them that it is not an ennobling experience. Poverty entails fear, and stress, and sometimes depression; it means a thousand petty humiliations and hardships. Climbing out of poverty by your own efforts, that is indeed something on which to pride yourself, but poverty itself is romanticised only by fools.

What I feared most for myself at your age was not poverty, but failure.

At your age, in spite of a distinct lack of motivation at university, where I had spent far too long in the coffee bar writing stories, and far too little time at lectures, I had a knack for passing examinations, and that, for years, had been the measure of success in my life and that of my peers.

I am not dull enough to suppose that because you are young, gifted and well-educated, you have never known hardship or heartbreak. Talent and intelligence never yet inoculated anyone against the caprice of the Fates, and I do not for a moment suppose that everyone here has enjoyed an existence of unruffled privilege and contentment.

However, the fact that you are graduating from Harvard suggests that you are not very well-acquainted with failure. You might be driven by a fear of failure quite as much as a desire for success. Indeed, your conception of failure might not be too far from the average person’s idea of success, so high have you already flown.

Ultimately, we all have to decide for ourselves what constitutes failure, but the world is quite eager to give you a set of criteria if you let it. So I think it fair to say that by any conventional measure, a mere seven years after my graduation day, I had failed on an epic scale. An exceptionally short-lived marriage had imploded, and I was jobless, a lone parent, and as poor as it is possible to be in modern Britain, without being homeless. The fears that my parents had had for me, and that I had had for myself, had both come to pass, and by every usual standard, I was the biggest failure I knew.

Now, I am not going to stand here and tell you that failure is fun. That period of my life was a dark one, and I had no idea that there was going to be what the press has since represented as a kind of fairy tale resolution. I had no idea then how far the tunnel extended, and for a long time, any light at the end of it was a hope rather than a reality.

So why do I talk about the benefits of failure? Simply because failure meant a stripping away of the inessential. I stopped pretending to myself that I was anything other than what I was, and began to direct all my energy into finishing the only work that mattered to me. Had I really succeeded at anything else, I might never have found the determination to succeed in the one arena I believed I truly belonged. I was set free, because my greatest fear had been realised, and I was still alive, and I still had a daughter whom I adored, and I had an old typewriter and a big idea. And so rock bottom became the solid foundation on which I rebuilt my life.

You might never fail on the scale I did, but some failure in life is inevitable. It is impossible to live without failing at something, unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at all – in which case, you fail by default.

Failure gave me an inner security that I had never attained by passing examinations. Failure taught me things about myself that I could have learned no other way. I discovered that I had a strong will, and more discipline than I had suspected; I also found out that I had friends whose value was truly above the price of rubies.

The knowledge that you have emerged wiser and stronger from setbacks means that you are, ever after, secure in your ability to survive. You will never truly know yourself, or the strength of your relationships, until both have been tested by adversity. Such knowledge is a true gift, for all that it is painfully won, and it has been worth more than any qualification I ever earned.

So given a Time Turner, I would tell my 21-year-old self that personal happiness lies in knowing that life is not a check-list of acquisition or achievement. Your qualifications, your CV, are not your life, though you will meet many people of my age and older who confuse the two. Life is difficult, and complicated, and beyond anyone’s total control, and the humility to know that will enable you to survive its vicissitudes.

Now you might think that I chose my second theme, the importance of imagination, because of the part it played in rebuilding my life, but that is not wholly so. Though I personally will defend the value of bedtime stories to my last gasp, I have learned to value imagination in a much broader sense. Imagination is not only the uniquely human capacity to envision that which is not, and therefore the fount of all invention and innovation. In its arguably most transformative and revelatory capacity, it is the power that enables us to empathise with humans whose experiences we have never shared.

One of the greatest formative experiences of my life preceded Harry Potter, though it informed much of what I subsequently wrote in those books. This revelation came in the form of one of my earliest day jobs. Though I was sloping off to write stories during my lunch hours, I paid the rent in my early 20s by working at the African research department at Amnesty International’s headquarters in London.

There in my little office I read hastily scribbled letters smuggled out of totalitarian regimes by men and women who were risking imprisonment to inform the outside world of what was happening to them. I saw photographs of those who had disappeared without trace, sent to Amnesty by their desperate families and friends. I read the testimony of torture victims and saw pictures of their injuries. I opened handwritten, eye-witness accounts of summary trials and executions, of kidnappings and rapes.

Many of my co-workers were ex-political prisoners, people who had been displaced from their homes, or fled into exile, because they had the temerity to speak against their governments. Visitors to our offices included those who had come to give information, or to try and find out what had happened to those they had left behind.

I shall never forget the African torture victim, a young man no older than I was at the time, who had become mentally ill after all he had endured in his homeland. He trembled uncontrollably as he spoke into a video camera about the brutality inflicted upon him. He was a foot taller than I was, and seemed as fragile as a child. I was given the job of escorting him back to the Underground Station afterwards, and this man whose life had been shattered by cruelty took my hand with exquisite courtesy, and wished me future happiness.

And as long as I live I shall remember walking along an empty corridor and suddenly hearing, from behind a closed door, a scream of pain and horror such as I have never heard since. The door opened, and the researcher poked out her head and told me to run and make a hot drink for the young man sitting with her. She had just had to give him the news that in retaliation for his own outspokenness against his country’s regime, his mother had been seized and executed.

Every day of my working week in my early 20s I was reminded how incredibly fortunate I was, to live in a country with a democratically elected government, where legal representation and a public trial were the rights of everyone.

Every day, I saw more evidence about the evils humankind will inflict on their fellow humans, to gain or maintain power. I began to have nightmares, literal nightmares, about some of the things I saw, heard, and read.

And yet I also learned more about human goodness at Amnesty International than I had ever known before.

Amnesty mobilises thousands of people who have never been tortured or imprisoned for their beliefs to act on behalf of those who have. The power of human empathy, leading to collective action, saves lives, and frees prisoners. Ordinary people, whose personal well-being and security are assured, join together in huge numbers to save people they do not know, and will never meet. My small participation in that process was one of the most humbling and inspiring experiences of my life.

Unlike any other creature on this planet, humans can learn and understand, without having experienced. They can think themselves into other people’s places.

Of course, this is a power, like my brand of fictional magic, that is morally neutral. One might use such an ability to manipulate, or control, just as much as to understand or sympathise.

And many prefer not to exercise their imaginations at all. They choose to remain comfortably within the bounds of their own experience, never troubling to wonder how it would feel to have been born other than they are. They can refuse to hear screams or to peer inside cages; they can close their minds and hearts to any suffering that does not touch them personally; they can refuse to know.

I might be tempted to envy people who can live that way, except that I do not think they have any fewer nightmares than I do. Choosing to live in narrow spaces leads to a form of mental agoraphobia, and that brings its own terrors. I think the wilfully unimaginative see more monsters. They are often more afraid.

What is more, those who choose not to empathise enable real monsters. For without ever committing an act of outright evil ourselves, we collude with it, through our own apathy.

One of the many things I learned at the end of that Classics corridor down which I ventured at the age of 18, in search of something I could not then define, was this, written by the Greek author Plutarch: What we achieve inwardly will change outer reality.

That is an astonishing statement and yet proven a thousand times every day of our lives. It expresses, in part, our inescapable connection with the outside world, the fact that we touch other people’s lives simply by existing.

But how much more are you, Harvard graduates of 2008, likely to touch other people’s lives? Your intelligence, your capacity for hard work, the education you have earned and received, give you unique status, and unique responsibilities. Even your nationality sets you apart. The great majority of you belong to the world’s only remaining superpower. The way you vote, the way you live, the way you protest, the pressure you bring to bear on your government, has an impact way beyond your borders. That is your privilege, and your burden.

If you choose to use your status and influence to raise your voice on behalf of those who have no voice; if you choose to identify not only with the powerful, but with the powerless; if you retain the ability to imagine yourself into the lives of those who do not have your advantages, then it will not only be your proud families who celebrate your existence, but thousands and millions of people whose reality you have helped change. We do not need magic to change the world, we carry all the power we need inside ourselves already: we have the power to imagine better.

I am nearly finished. I have one last hope for you, which is something that I already had at 21. The friends with whom I sat on graduation day have been my friends for life. They are my children’s godparents, the people to whom I’ve been able to turn in times of trouble, people who have been kind enough not to sue me when I took their names for Death Eaters. At our graduation we were bound by enormous affection, by our shared experience of a time that could never come again, and, of course, by the knowledge that we held certain photographic evidence that would be exceptionally valuable if any of us ran for Prime Minister.

So today, I wish you nothing better than similar friendships. And tomorrow, I hope that even if you remember not a single word of mine, you remember those of Seneca, another of those old Romans I met when I fled down the Classics corridor, in retreat from career ladders, in search of ancient wisdom:
As is a tale, so is life: not how long it is, but how good it is, is what matters.

I wish you all very good lives.
Thank you very much.






























乔布斯(Steve Jobs)在斯坦福毕业典礼的演讲——Stay hungry. Stay foolish.



“If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you’ll most certainly be right.”

When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: “If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you’ll most certainly be right.” It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: “If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?” And whenever the answer has been “No” for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.

当我十七岁的时候,我读到了一句话:“如果你把每一天都当作生命中最后一天去生活的话,那么有一天你会发现你是正确的。”这句话给我留下了深刻的印象。从那时开始,过了33 年,我在每天早晨都会对着镜子问自己:“如果今天是我生命中的最后一天,你会不会完成你今天想做的事情呢?”当答案连续很多次被给予“不是”的时候,我知道自己需要改变某些事情了。




Windows Live 日志http://player.youku.com/player.php/sid/XMTM3OTM5OTA0/v.swf







This is the text of the Commencement address by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Computer and of Pixar Animation Studios, delivered on June 12, 2005.


I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I’ve ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That’s it. No big deal. Just three stories.

The first story is about connecting the dots.

I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?

It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: "We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?" They said: "Of course." My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.

And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents’ savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn’t see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn’t interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.

It wasn’t all romantic. I didn’t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends’ rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:

Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn’t have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can’t capture, and I found it fascinating.

None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, its likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.

Again, you can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.

My second story is about love and loss.

I was lucky — I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.

I really didn’t know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down – that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me — I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.

I didn’t see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.

During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple’s current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.

I’m pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn’t been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don’t lose faith. I’m convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You’ve got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle. As with all matters of the heart, you’ll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don’t settle.

My third story is about death.

When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: "If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you’ll most certainly be right." It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: "If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?" And whenever the answer has been "No" for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.

Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the most important tool I’ve ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything — all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure – these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.

About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn’t even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor’s code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you’d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.

I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I’m fine now.

This was the closest I’ve been to facing death, and I hope its the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:

No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don’t want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life’s change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.

Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.

When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960’s, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.

Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: "Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish." It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.

Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.

Thank you all very much



史蒂夫 乔布斯(Steve Jobs)在斯坦福大学2005年毕业典礼上的演讲

故事从我出生的时候讲起。我的亲生母亲是一个年轻的,没有结婚的大学毕业生。她决定让别人收养我, 她十分想让我被大学毕业生收养。所以在我出生的时候,她已经做好了一切的准备工作,能使得我被一个律师和他的妻子所收养。但是她没有料到,当我出生之后, 律师夫妇突然决定他们想要一个女孩。所以我的生养父母(他们在待选名单上)突然在半夜接到了一个电话:"我们现在这儿有一个不小心生出来的男婴,你们想要他吗?"他们回答道: "当然!"但是我亲生母亲随后发现,我的养母从来没有上过大学,我的养父 甚至从没有读过高中。她拒绝签这个收养合同。只是在几个月以后,我的父母答应她一定要让我上大学,那个时候她才软化同意。
在十七岁那年,我真的上了大学。但是我很愚蠢的选择了一个几乎和你们斯坦福大学一样贵的学校, 我父母还处于蓝领阶层,他们几乎把所有积蓄都花在了我的学费上面。在六个月后, 我已经看不到其中的价值所在。我不知道我真正想要做什么,我也不知道大学能怎样帮助我找到答案。但是在这里,我几乎花光了我父母这一辈子的 全部积蓄。所以我决定要退学,我觉得这是个正确的决定。不能否认,我当时确实非常的害怕, 但是现在回头看看,那的确是我这一生中最棒的一个决定。在我做出退学决定的那一刻, 我终于可以不必去读那些令我提不起丝毫兴趣的课程了。然后我可以开始去修那些看起来有点意思的课程。

但是这并不是那么罗曼蒂克。我失去了我的宿舍,所以我只能在朋友房间的地板上面睡觉,我去捡可以换5美分的可乐罐,仅仅为了填饱肚子, 在星期天的晚上,我需要走七英里的路程,穿过这个城市到Hare Krishna神庙(注:位于纽约Brooklyn下城),只是为了能吃上好饭——这个星期唯一一顿好一点的饭,我喜欢那里的饭菜。
我跟着我的直觉和好奇心走, 遇到的很多东西,此后被证明是无价之宝。让我给你们举一个例子吧:
Reed大学在那时提供也许是全美最好的美术字课程。在这个大学里面的每个海报, 每个抽屉的标签上面全都是漂亮的美术字。因为我退学了, 不必去上正规的课程, 所以我决定去参加这个课程,去学学怎样写出漂亮的美术字。我学到了san serif 和serif字体, 我学会了怎么样在不同的字母组合之中改变空白间距, 还有怎么样才能作出最棒的印刷式样。那种美好、历史感和艺术精妙,是科学永远不能捕捉到的, 我发现那实在是太迷人了。
当时看起来这些东西在我的生命中,好像都没有什么实际应用的可能。但是十年之后,当我们在设计第一台Macintosh电脑的时候,就不是那样了。我把当时我学的那些 东西全都设计进了Mac。那是第一台使用了漂亮的印刷字体的电脑。如果我当时没有退学, 就不会有机会去参加这个我感兴趣的美术字课程, Mac就不会有这么多丰富的字体,以及赏心悦目的字体间距。因为Windows只是抄袭了Mac,所以现在个人电脑就不会有现在这么美妙的字型了。
我非常幸运, 因为我在很早的时候就找到了我钟爱的东西。Woz和我在二十岁的时候就在父母的车库里面开创了苹果公司。我们工作得很努力, 十年之后, 这个公司从那两个车库中的穷小子发展到了超过四千名的雇员、价值超过二十亿的大公司。在公司成立的第九年,我们刚刚发布了最好的产品,那就是Macintosh。我也快要到三十岁了。在那一年, 我被炒了鱿鱼。你怎么可能被你自己创立的公司炒了鱿鱼呢? 嗯,在苹果快速成长的时候,我们雇用了一个很有天分的家伙和我一起管理这个公司, 在最初的几年,公司运转的很好。但是后来我们对未来的看法发生了分歧, 最终我们吵了起来。当争吵不可开交的时候, 董事会站在了他的那一边。所以在三十岁的时候, 我被炒了。在这么多人目光下我被炒了。在而立之年,我生命的全部支柱离自己远去, 这真是毁灭性的打击。
在最初的几个月里,我真是不知道该做些什么。我觉得我很令上一代的创业家们很失望,我把他们交给我的接力棒弄丢了。我和创办惠普的David Pack、创办Intel的Bob Noyce见面,并试图向他们道歉。我把事情弄得糟糕透顶了。但是我渐渐发现了曙光, 我仍然喜爱我从事的这些东西。苹果公司发生的这些事情丝毫的没有改变这些, 一点也没有。我被驱逐了,但是我仍然钟爱我所做的事情。所以我决定从头再来。
我当时没有觉察, 但是事后证明, 从苹果公司被炒是我这辈子发生的最棒的事情。因为,作为一个成功者的负重感被作为一个创业者的轻松感觉所重新代替, 没有比这更确定的事情了。这让我觉得如此自由, 进入了我生命中最有创造力的一个阶段。
在接下来的五年里, 我创立了一个名叫NeXT的公司, 还有一个叫Pixar的公司, 然后和一个后来成为我妻子的优雅女人相识。Pixar 制作了世界上第一个用电脑制作的动画电影——"玩具总动员",Pixar现在也是世界上最成功的电脑制作工作室。在后来的一系列运转中,Apple收购了NeXT, 然后我又回到了Apple公司。我们在NeXT发展的技术在Apple的今天的复兴之中发挥了关键的作用。而且,我还和Laurence 一起建立了一个幸福完美的家庭。
我可以非常肯定,如果我不被Apple开除的话, 这其中一件事情也不会发生的。这个良药的味道实在是太苦了,但是我想病人需要这个药。有些时候, 生活会拿起一块砖头向你的脑袋上猛拍一下。不要失去信仰。我很清楚唯一使我一直走下去的,就是我做的事情令我无比钟爱。你需要去找到你所爱的东西。对于工作是如此, 对于你的爱人也是如此。你的工作将会占据生活中很大的一部分。你只有相信自己所做的是伟大的工作, 你才能怡然自得。如果你现在还没有找到, 那么继续找、不要停下来,只要全心全意的去找, 在你找到的时候,你的心会告诉你的。就像任何真诚的关系, 随着岁月的流逝只会越来越紧密。所以继续找,直到你找到它,不要停下来!
当我十七岁的时候, 我读到了一句话:"如果你把每一天都当作生命中最后一天去生活的话,那么有一天你会发现你是正确的。"这句话给我留下了一个印象。从那时开始,过了33 年,我在每天早晨都会对着镜子问自己:"如果今天是我生命中的最后一天, 你会不会完成你今天想做的事情呢?"当答案连续多天是"No"的时候, 我知道自己需要改变某些事情了。
"记住你即将死去"是我一生中遇到的最重要箴言。它帮我指明了生命中重要的选择。因为几乎所有的事情, 包括所有的荣誉、所有的骄傲、所有对难堪和失败的恐惧,这些在死亡面前都会消失。我看到的是留下的真正重要的东西。你有时候会思考你将会失去某些东西, "记住你即将死去"是我知道的避免这些想法的最好办法。你已经赤身裸体了, 你没有理由不去跟随自己内心的声音。
大概一年以前, 我被诊断出癌症。我在早晨七点半做了一个检查, 检查清楚的显示在我的胰腺有一个肿瘤。我当时都不知道胰腺是什么东西。医生告诉我那很可能是一种无法治愈的癌症, 我还有三到六个月的时间活在这个世界上。我的医生叫我回家, 然后整理好我的一切, 那是医生对临终病人的标准程序。那意味着你将要把未来十年对你小孩说的话在几个月里面说完.;那意味着把每件事情都安排好, 让你的家人会尽可能轻松的生活;那意味着你要说"再见了"。
我拿着那个诊断书过了一整天,那天晚上我作了一个活切片检查,医生将一个内窥镜从我的喉咙伸进去,通过我的胃, 然后进入我的肠子, 用一根针在我的胰腺上的肿瘤上取了几个细胞。我当时是被麻醉的,但是我的妻子在那里, 后来告诉我,当医生在显微镜下观察这些细胞的时候他们开始尖叫, 因为这些细胞最后竟然是一种非常罕见的可以用手术治愈的胰腺癌症细胞。我做了这个手术, 现在我痊愈了。
那是我最接近死亡的时候, 我希望这也是以后的几十年最接近的一次。从死亡线上又活了过来, 我可以比以前把死亡只当成一 种想象中的概念的时候,更肯定一点地对你们说:
没有人愿意死, 即使人们想上天堂, 也不会为了去那里而死。但是死亡是我们每个人共同的终点。从来没有人能够逃脱它。也应该如此。因为死亡就是生命中最好的一个发明。它将旧的清除以便给新的让路。你们现在是新的, 但是从现在开始不久以后, 你们将会逐渐的变成旧的然后被送离人生舞台。我很抱歉这很戏剧性, 但是这十分的真实。
你们的时间很有限, 所以不要将他们浪费在重复其他人的生活上。不要被教条束缚,那意味着你和其他人思考的结果一起生活。不要被其他人喧嚣的观点掩盖你真正的内心的声音。还有最重要的是, 你要有勇气去听从你直觉和心灵的指示——它们在某种程度上知道你想要成为什么样子,所有其他的事情都是次要的。
当我年轻的时候, 有一本叫做"整个地球的目录"振聋发聩的杂志,它是我们那一代人的圣经之一。它是一个叫Stewart Brand的家伙在离这里不远的Menlo Park编辑的, 他象诗一般神奇地将这本书带到了这个世界。那是六十年代后期, 在个人电脑出现之前, 所以这本书全部是用打字机,、剪刀还有偏光镜制造的。有点像用软皮包装的google, 在google出现三十五年之前:这是理想主义的,其中有许多灵巧的工具和伟大的想法。

Stewart和他的伙伴出版了几期的"整个地球的目录",当它完成了自己使命的时候, 他们做出了最后一期的目录。那是在七十年代的中期, 我正是你们的年纪。在最后一期的封底上是清晨乡村公路的照片(如果你有冒险精神的话,你可以自己找到这条路的),在照片之下有这样一段话:"求知若饥,虚心若愚。"这是他们停止了发刊的告别语。"求知若饥,虚心若愚。"我总是希望自己能够那样,现在, 在你们即将毕业,开始新的旅程的时候, 我也希望你们能这样:











  • 在面对自己时会表现为:逃避成长、执迷不悟、拒绝承当伟大的使命;
  • 在面对他人时会表现为:如果别人表现出优秀之处,便会嫉妒;如果别人受到了祝福,他会心里难受;如果别人倒了霉,他会幸灾乐祸。










1. 编程已给我带来很多坏习惯,编程也每天在继续给我新增更多的坏习惯。当然有些习惯和编程无关了。下面这些习惯尽管我也很想改掉,但已根深蒂固。

  • a. 在天地万物中,去发现多态、继承和模式;
  • b. 用十六进制代码中的像素和颜色来解释某东西的大小;
  • c. 在日常交谈中用代码相关的抽象术语。

2. 我现在认为256这个数字非常完美。但非程序员不明白这个,有时候让我措手不及。
3. 我在看纸质书时,我就非常沮丧。为什么我不能用Ctrl + F来找想看的东西呢?
4. Q: Do you want tea OR coffee?
A: Yes
5. 我Google一切。
6. 几年前,我去一家咖啡店吃午饭,柜台里边的MM问我吃哪种面包。我不假思索地说:“默认的。”
7. 每天坐在屏幕面前,盯上10个小时,这样真的很难保持健康。如果你经常走神,编程可以帮你养成久坐的生活方式。
8. 在现实世界中,我真的很需要Ctrl + Z。
编者评:不仅你想要,我们也想要。除了不仅要这个,每次看到钱包的时候,都会想:“要说我能Ctrl+C和Ctlr+V多好啊!”。另外,某某说他的成功可以Ctrl + C,莫非他和我们同行?
9. 我是从零开始数数的,经常用“1”表示结束,而别人用“1”表示开始。
10. 我喜欢“是/不是”类型的问题,我对那种既不是“是”,也不是“不是”的回答非常不爽。
比如:我问:“你不介意我换个台吧?” 别人答:“我正在和我妹妹IM聊天。”对我来说,这就好比:public bool canFlip( ) { return "I’m IMing my sister"; }
11. 我教我们家小孩,三主色是:Red、Green和Blue。
12. 侍者:嗨,我叫克里斯蒂,我是你的server/侍者!(server除表示“侍者”之外,还指“服务器”。)
13. 我发现,有时候我明明说的非常精确,但某人(通常是我老婆)并不领会我的精确性,而是理解成类似的东西。这让我抓狂。比如,我在做菜的时候,我并没有说:“从冰箱里拿任何黄的东西,”我是说:“给我黄油。”

14. 当我收到如下留言后:
15. 我想用正则表达式来搜寻现实对象。
16. 在平常打字中,句子都是分号结尾
17. 我在家做任何家务事都非常有条理。比如,在使用任何产品之前,我会仔细阅读附带的说明书,即使是使用非常简单的烤面包机也不例外。如果我要挂相框,我会Google一下“如何挂相框”,确定我所知道的是正确的(或者在亚马逊上找本悬挂相框相关的书)。
18. 把一段话称为“字符串”。这让非程序员们非常不解 – 嘛是“字符串”?
19. 我发现我在写信的时候常常在侧边嵌套花括号,我老婆看到后以为我抽风了。收件人也应该差不多这样想。但这已经是习惯了。
20. 缺觉,我现在习惯了。
21. 我喜欢优化每天的事情,通过尽可能地多的并行处理事情。比如,在启动电脑后,跑到厨房打开水壶、准备咖啡,然后跑回来输入密码登录系统;在打开火狐时,去倒开水冲咖啡,然后端着咖啡回来浏览新闻;另外,坐在马桶上刷牙,每天也能节省几分钟。

天涯原帖《妹子们的黑历史自己做过的最堕落 最放纵 最邪恶的事情》







作者:小三季稻 发表日期:2010-8-6 12:38:00

大家进来818自己做过的最堕落最放纵 最邪恶的事情








作者:堕落的黑马甲 回复日期:2010-08-07 15:05:03

1 刚跟男朋分手的时候,那段时间心情极差,

故意找他哥们出来,单独的。, 喝酒, 然后跟他哥们上床报复他。而且不只一个。

2 还是那段时间,一个人去酒吧疯。, 喝醉了被陌生男人带去开房, 跟谁我都不知道, 早上起来一个人坐在墙角哭。。。。哭了很久。

3 少儿不宜 算了。



作者:堕落的黑马甲 回复日期:2010-08-07 18:04:03








作者:堕落的黑马甲 回复日期:2010-08-07 19:02:47


作者:dtctlc2 回复日期:2010-08-07 19:44:11






作者:堕落的黑马甲 回复日期:2010-08-07 19:53:24






作者:堕落的黑马甲 回复日期:2010-08-07 21:06:23



作者:能不能听我说 回复日期:2010-08-08 13:22:10








作者:能不能听我说 回复日期:2010-08-08 14:03:48







作者:密码202020 回复日期:2010-08-08 14:44:28


跟个小GAY恋爱,比我小三岁,以为他转性了爱我,结果无意知道他还在每晚送我回家后去插人家的菊花,这个死小GAY实在太YD,简直女表子一个,于是后来我很长时间里都不正常了,跟我们共同的一个男性朋友上床,上了两年,不跟人家谈恋爱,只 XX,不过算有原因吧,他很帅,比我小四岁,我觉得跟他来真的,将来会把握不住他。




作者:能不能听我说 回复日期:2010-08-08 19:52:39

1 大学时异地恋,知道前男朋友和别人发生了肉体关系,想办法逃学,和他同居一个多月 每天都偷偷喂他避孕药 直到无论如何挑逗他都无法BQ时离开 并分手分手前把他的电脑拿出去卖了 和他恋爱期间曾假称怀孕诈了他一笔钱

2 通过他的空间查到三的QQ 想办法进入她的空间 在她空间的好友中一个个的找到她的大号 再从她大号空间中的留言的男人一个一个加为好友 直到找到她的男朋友告诉他他的女朋友和我的男朋友上过床 当然那个我的身份是虚伪的

3 大一时和一个四十多的男人援交

4 和男友A去参加他宿舍朋友的生日宴 结果偶遇宿舍朋友的老乡–男友B带着他的女朋友

5 无可救要的喜欢上一个男人 我背着异地恋男友他背着女友偷情 在野外OOXX,和他谈了很久,分分和和 直到工作后觉得他虽然长的帅但工作能力不行`果断分手

6 被某男打了一巴掌晚上在他睡后用刀子捅了他一刀(大腿)

7 为了工作的稳定与晋升用肉体行贿

8 十几岁时设计把和自己有过节的女孩骗去 让几个男人LJ了她

9 工作后认识了一个高中的男孩子 并保持一段时间的肉体关系 直到他高考落榜(中考时前几名进重点高中的孩子,最终连二本都没考进) 他的妈妈是我的小学数学老师曾当着全班同学的面打了我四个耳光

10 大学时曾有一个同班同学喜欢我 是那种默默的喜欢 我也知道他的心思 如果寂寞时就让他陪着我 我一直在装傻 假装不知他喜欢我 将他做为备胎 直到某次狠狠的伤害他




作者:密码202020 回复日期:2010-08-09 00:08:32













作者:能不能听我说 回复日期:2010-08-09 00:30:23

16岁被一个已婚老男人qiang bao夺走第一次过后,开始堕落,










作者:847929342 回复日期:2010-08-09 03:48:18























  1. 细分市场
    1. 如何细分市场
      1. 划定细分范围
      2. 确认细分依据
      3. 权衡细分变量
      4. 实施市场调查
      5. 评估细分市场
      6. 选择目标市场
      7. 设计营销策略


    2. 选择目标市场
      1. 选择的条件:
        1. 该市场能够给企业带来效益
        2. 企业具备足够的资源和优势去开拓该市场
      2. 了解消费者的购买策略:”5W“和”1H
        1. Who,谁来买
        2. What,买什么
        3. When,何时购买
        4. Where,何处购买
        5. How,怎么购买
        6. Why,为什么购买
    3. 市场定位
      1. 两种基本的市场定位策略
        1. 迎头定位策略
        2. 避强定位策略
      2. 市场定位的方法
        1. 依据用途定位
        2. 依据产品的利益定位
        3. 根据价格和质量定位
        4. 根据使用者习惯看法定位
        5. 根据产品特征定位
        6. 根据竞争产品定位
        7. 组合定位


  2. 建立市场差别化
    1. 一个市场提供物可以在五个方面实行差别化:
      1. 渠道
      2. 人员
      3. 形象(标志、气氛、媒体、事件等)
      4. 产品(特色、性能质量、耐用性、可维护性、可靠性、设计、风格等)
      5. 服务(订货方便、交货、安装、客户培训、客户咨询、维修、多种服务等)
    2. 差别化的标准:重要性、独特性、专利性、优越性、可承担性、盈利性


  3. 延长产品生命周期
    1. 产品的生命周期理论
      1. 四个阶段:介绍期、成长期、成熟期和衰退期
    2. 在产品生命周期各个阶段的营销管理策略
      1. 介绍期:
        1. 高促销——高价格
        2. 低促销——高价格
        3. 高促销——低价格
        4. 低促销——低价格
      2. 成长期:
        1. 改善产品品质
        2. 寻找新的细分市场
        3. 改变广告宣传的重点
        4. 采取降价战略
      3. 成熟期:
        1. 营销改变:提高销售技巧上的竞争能力
          1. 雪茄、打折等优惠
          2. 又将、附赠礼品等
          3. 听取消费者意见、改进服务
          4. 有效广告手段、改进包装
        2. 市场改良:目标是,增加”更新”或”增买”的比例
          1. 采用价值工程法,让产品主配件同时损坏而难以修理,导致产品经济寿命结束,来迫使消费者更新
          2. 考虑产品的再定位,寻找新的目标市场,是消费者”增买”
          3. 促使消费者增大使用产品的频率
      4. 衰退期:
        1. 继续战略
        2. 集中战略
        3. 收缩战略
        4. 放弃战略



  4. 开发新产品以拓宽市场
    1. 新产品开发失败的原因
      1. 成本高于预计
      2. 对手的激烈反应超出估计
      3. 产品在市场上定位错误,没有有效的广告,或对产品定价过高
      4. 创意虽好,但对市场规模估计不足
      5. 高层可能不顾市场调查作出的结论,推行他喜爱的产品构思
    2. 影响新产品开发的因素
      1. 缺乏构思
      2. 细分成碎片的市场
      3. 社会和政府限制
      4. 开发过程中代价较高
  5. 新产品开发的步骤
    1. 新产品开发过程:
      1. 创意产生
      2. 创意筛选
      3. 概念发展和测试
      4. 营销战略发展
      5. 商业分析
      6. 产品开发
      7. 市场试销
      8. 商品化
    2. 收集创意的方法
      1. 适当的组织吸引好的创意
      2. 激发员工提出构思
      3. 允许技术员花费时间从事他们喜欢的项目
      4. 创意应写在纸上由创意委员会每周检查一次
      5. 把创意分成有前途的、暂时搁置的和放弃的3
      6. 每个有前途的创意需经过创意委员会一个成员的研究并作出报告返回
      7. 给与报酬或重用
      8. 对客户进行调查,顾客头脑风暴会议
      9. 建立关键词搜索,时常获取新产品信息
    3. 组合分析法
      1. 目的:衡量消费者对不同产品概念的偏好,以确定最佳吸引力的供应物、估计市场份额和公司可以获得的利润等。
      2. 测试后,提出营销战略计划,
        1. 描述目标市场的规模、结构和行为,所计划产品的定位和销售量、市场份额、开头几年的利润目标的前景分析
        2. 描述产品的计划价格、分销策略和第一年的营销预算
        3. ,描述预期的长期销售量和利润目标,以及不同时期的销售方式
  6. 拓展新市场的方法
    1. 了解市场
    2. 了解竞争对手
      1. 它模仿本公司策略
      2. 它不做任何反应
      3. 它采取相反方向的行为
    3. 了解自己的企业
  7. 如何打向国际市场
    1. 与独立代理商合作
    2. 建立合资企业
    3. 许可证贸易
    4. 合同制造
    5. 特许经营
    6. 出口产品